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Prairie Species Habitat Conservation Plan – Kincaid’s Lupine

Lupinus sulphureus ssp. kincaidii


Kincaid’s lupine was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2000 (see more information). It is also listed as threatened by the state of Oregon.


Kincaid’s Lupine is a long-lived perennial forb species in the pea family (Fabaceae). It has palmately compound leaves clustered at the base of single, unbranched stems, and produces unbranched inflorescence of whitish-purplish to tan flowers.

Kincaid’s Lupine reproduces by seed and by extensive vegetative spread.

Range and Habitat

Kincaid’s Lupine is a native species of prairies of southwestern Washington, the Willamette Valley, and forest openings and meadow gaps in Douglas County, Oregon.

Within the Willamette Valley, Kincaid’s Lupine is a host plant for the endangered Fender’s Blue butterfly, making conservation of the lupine important for the lupine as well as the insect.

Although there are no known sightings of Fender’s Blue in Douglas County, it is not known whether the two species co-occurred historically in that area.


Remaining populations of Kincaid’s lupine are at risk from:

  • Further habitat loss or fragmentation
  • Invasion of prairie habitats by non-native species
  • Encroachment of trees and shrubs into prairie habitats
  • Elimination of natural disturbance regimes
  • Inbreeding as a result of isolated and fragmented populations
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